Landscape Futures represent different possible outcomes from implementing regional natural resource management plans and targets. The amount and spatial arrangement of natural resource management actions in the landscape determine Landscape Futures. Landscape Futures are heavily influenced by different policy options and by different scenarios for future climate change, commodity prices, and water availability and price. Landscape futures include the social and economic implications of achieving improvements in natural resource condition. The Lower Murray Landscape Futures project examined future scenarios where policy innovations encourage the widespread adoption of natural resource management actions in the form of carbon and water trading and the establishment of new industries such as biomass and biofuels production. Simultaneously, scenarios were examined where climate change drives changes in water availability, agricultural production and associated environmental impacts.